Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus
Of the neurogenic zones in the adult brain, adult hippocampal neurogenesis attracts the most attention, because it is involved in higher cognitive function, most notably memory processes, and certain affective behaviors. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is also found in humans at a considerable level and appears to contribute significantly to hippocampal plasticity across the life span, because it is regulated by activity. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis generates new excitatory granule cells in the dentate gyrus, whose axons form the mossy fiber tract that links the dentate gyrus to CA3. It originates from a population of radial glia-like precursor cells type 1 cells that have astrocytic properties, express markers of neural stem cells and divide rarely.
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Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus | Nature Medicine
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Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus
The formation of new neurons in the adult central nervous system CNS has been recognized as one of the major findings in neuroanatomical research. The hippocampal formation HF , one of the main targets of these investigations, holds a neurogenic niche widely recognized among several mammalian species and whose existence in the human brain has sparked controversy and extensive debate. Many cellular features from this region emphasize that hippocampal neurogenesis suffers changes with normal aging and, among regulatory factors, physical exercise and chronic stress provoke opposite effects on cell proliferation, maturation and survival.
Adult neurogenesis appears very well conserved among mammals. It was, however, not until recently that quantitative data on the extent of this process became available in humans, largely because of methodological challenges to study this process in man. There is substantial hippocampal neurogenesis in adult humans, but humans appear unique among mammals in that there is no detectable olfactory bulb neurogenesis but continuous addition of new neurons in the striatum. There has been an enormous expansion in the knowledge regarding adult neurogenesis in experimental animals over the last two decades. A strong motivation in this research field has been that similar processes are likely to operate in humans, and that alterations in adult neurogenesis could underlie neurological or psychiatric diseases.
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